Chronology of the Written Text (Around 610)
Chronology of the Written Text (Around 610-32)
Chronology of the Written Text (Around 632)
Chronology of the Written Text (Around 632-34)
During the battle of Yamama (against the false prophet Musailamah Al-Kazzab), several Companions who knew the Qur'an by heart were killed.
Zaid b.Thabit brought together all the revelation into the sheets (suhuf), both from oral as well as written sources, demanding two witnesses for each piece. The suhuf remain with Abu Bakr.
Chronology of the Written Text (Around 634-56)
Chronology of the Written Text (Around 653)
Uthman instructed Zaid together with three other sahabah (Companions) to prepare copies from the suhuf kept with Hafsa.
Zaid and three Companions prepared a number of fresh copies from the suhuf. These copies are sent to the various Muslim regions to replace other material in circulation. Suhuf returned to Hafsa. Uthman also keeps one complete copy (mushaf).
As we have seen, Uthman's role consisted of making publicly available the manuscript compiled under the direction of Abu Bakr.
We have also seen that this original simply the integral reproduction of the text written down at the dictation of the Prophet himself, following the order in which it was recited (not to be confused with the order in which it was revealed).
The wide distribution of the standard text and its UNDISPUTED authority can also be deduced from the reports on the battle of Siffin (AH 37), 27 years after the death of the Prophet, and 5 years after Uthman's copies were distributed: Mu'awiyah's troops fixed sheets from Qur'an on their spears to interupt the battle. However nobody accused anyone else of using a 'partisan' version of the text, which would have made a splendid accusation against the enemy.
The well-known report about Umar bin Khattab's conversion to Islam shows that large passages of the Qur'an had already been written down even at the early time, in Mecca, long before the hijra, when the Prophet was still in the house of Arqam (one of the first converts in Islam). It was surah Taha (chapter 20) of the Qur'an which Umar read in the sheet of his sister that brought him to Islam. – [Ibn Hisham, pp.156-157]
One of the scribes of the Prophet, Zaid bin Thabit is said: “'We used to compile the Qur'an from small scraps in the presence of the Apostle.” – [Suyuti, Itqan, I, p. 99; Salih, Mabahith fi ‘ulum al-Qur’an, p.69.]
When surah 4 verse 95 of the Qur'an was revealed, the Prophet said: "Call Zaid for me, let him bring the board, the ink pot, and the scapula bones." Then he said to him: "Write: 'Not equal are those believers...' (4:95) – [Bukhari, VI, No.512; also VI, No.116- 118]
It was also reported that material upon which the revelation had been written down was kept in the house of the Prophet. – [Suyuti, Itqan, I, p.58]
Another report informs us that when people came to Madina to learn about Islam in the time of the Prophet, they were provided with copies of the chapters of the Qur'an, to read and learn them by heart. – [Hamidullah M., Sahifa Hammam ibn Munabbih, p.64]
The Qur'an did exist as a written document in the life time of the Prophet, as mentioned in the following record: The Prophet said: "Do not take the Qur'an on a journey with you, for I am afraid lest it should fall into the hands of the enemy (i.e. the enemy may seize it and may quarrel with you over it)”. – [Muslim, III, No.4607,4608,4609; Bukhari, IV, No.233]
One of the Prophet’s companions, Ibn Umar, said: “No doubt the Prophet and his Companions traveled in the land of the enemy and they knew the Qur'an then (i.e. that the Qur'an was carried as a written scripture, by the Muslims)” – [ Bukhari, IV, p. 146, Ch.129]
The Prophet sent copies of the chapters of the Qur'an with some Muslims for instruction in Islam to the people of Yemen. – [Muwatta' Imam Malik, p.204]
One of the scribes of the Prophet, Zaid bin Thabit is said: “’We used to compile the Qur’an from small scraps in the presence of the Apostle.” – [Suyuti, Itqan, I, p. 99; Salih, Mabahith fi ‘ulum al-Qur’an, p.69.]
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